Universal and Targeted
Publications and Research
In this paper for the National Research Council and U.S. Equity and Excellence Commission, NIEER Director Steve Barnett looks at studies that provide rigorous estimates of the effects of some large scale, state-funded pre-K programs – both targeted and universal. Using available data on preschool access in the United States, Dr. Barnett also provides estimates on pre-K enrollment by family income and the costs of providing educationally effective pre-K programs to all children.
Published in Educational Policy, this article from Jason T. Hustedt and W. Steven Barnett identifies and explains the various funding streams in the early childhood education field.
This article compares the current targeted approach to preschool education with a universal approach that would increase access and quality.